I need responses to the following discussion posts from my classmates. Each resp

I need responses to the following discussion posts from my classmates.
Each response needs to be 250 words with a resource.
1. Within the multi-faceted framework of clinical decision making exists the following four ethical principles autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice (Ledlow, G. R. & Stephens, J. H. , 2018). These guiding principles exists to accomplish treatment and care planning objectives performed by health care providers. The first ethical principle is autonomy and can be explained as the ability of an individual to have the freedom to make independent decisions about choices made about their medical care. While there are certainly scenarios in which an individual does not have the mental capacity to make sound decisions for themselves, patient autonomy serves to maintain the dignity of self-sufficiency. The second ethical principle is beneficence and can be explained as the ethical obligation of all medical professionals and facilities who employ them to do the right thing. Such as, provide medical care to those in need regardless of their ability to pay for services. The guidelines of who can afford to pay for services versus those who can’t is established by the federal government (CMS, 2020). The third ethical principle is nonmaleficence and can be explained as the intentional action to do good and the moral obligation to do no harm. The fourth and final ethical principle is justice and can be explained as the fairness distribution of health care resources. For example, hospitals within a community have equitable resources. Rather than only one hospital having needed resources to illness, injury, and disease.
Health care leaders can apply these principles in decision making within a health organization across multiple disciplines such as clinical and operational ( Iresearchnet Psychology, 2016). In review of various ethic theories there are many similarities and yet distinct differences. The theory of Deontological Ethics considers that an action itself must be good in order to be considered as morally right and just. The theory of Utilitarian Ethics considers that an action which serves the greater good for the majority of the population is morally right and just (Modern Health Care, 2020)
For example, the ethical principle autonomy can be compared to a leadership decision to create a pathway of communication that empowers and enables employees to have a voice in the decisions that affect their work, which is further supported by the organization mission and values. Another example can be compared in the ethical principle of beneficence. In my own experience as a senior leader within a large healthcare organization with 22k+ employees, the company has a fairly market competitive benefits package, which helps to recruit and retain high performers. One of the benefit offers a tiered referral bonus to existing employees who refer external candidates for career opportunities within the organization and who are subsequently hired. As a senior leader within the organization I often refer external candidates with potential for opportunities throughout all business lines of the organization. I also make hiring decisions for my line of business. For this reason I remove myself as a referral for any candidate I personally refer and hire. Another example can be compared in the ethical principle of nonmaleficence. A hot topic in health care is patient privacy and the current regulations which stipulate how such information must be handled (Modern Health Care, 2020). These methods are quickly becoming outdated with the development of new technology. Using the ethical principles to problem solve provides a pathway for protection of disclosures, and to ensure all major aspects and ramifications are considered, including any positive impact to future ethical decisions.
Iresearchnet Psychology. (2016, February 1). Leadership and Management . Retrieved from Iresearchnet Psychology: http://psychology.iresearchnet.com/industrial-organizational-psychology/leadership-and-management/behavioral-approach-to-leadership/
Ledlow, G. R. & Stephens, J. H. (2018). Leadership for health professionals: Theory, skills, and applications. 3rd Ed. Jones & Bartlett, Burlington, MA.
Mere, M. (2019, September 22). Easy 3 Step Decision Making Process. Retrieved from Decisiveminds: https://decisiveminds.com/easy-step-decision-making-process/4675
Modern Health Care. (2020, 4 23). Modern Healthcare Achieving Transparency In Healthcare. Retrieved from Modern Healthcare: https://www.modernhealthcare.com/reports/achieving-transparency-in-healthcare
OpenStax. (2021, June 16). Principles of Management. Retrieved from https://openstax.org/books/principles-management/pages/13-4-the-trait-approach-to-leadership
2. Ethical principles are universal rules of conduct derived from ethical theories that provide a practical basis for identifying what kind of actions, intentions, and motives are valued (Ledlow & Stephens, 2018). Ethical principles assist leaders in making choices based on moral principles that have been identified as standards considered meaningful when addressing healthcare-related dilemmas. The patient framework of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice help guide a leader’s agenda with respect to patient care decisions. Autonomy involves recognizing the right of a person to make their own decisions. Beneficence describes the principles of doing good, demonstrating kindness, showing compassion, and helping others. Nonmaleficence is an ethical principle that requires caregivers to avoid causing harm to patients. Justice is the obligation to be fair in the distribution of benefits and risks (Pozgar, 2019).
Each person has a right to make their own decisions about health care. Patient autonomy sets the foundation of one’s right to bodily integrity, including the right to accept or refuse treatment. Those rights are superior to the considerations of health organizations and providers of care. Determining the right thing to do in any circumstance is not always an easy decision.
At its core, beneficence is an essential principle of health care ethics and ethical selflessness. The principle encourages health care workers to consciously invest the time and effort to ensure that each patient benefits in each situation. The difficulty with this principle often lies in defining what good means to each patient. Before acting with beneficence in mind, a leader must learn and consider each patient’s specific wants, needs, and experiences (Wolin, 2021). Being aware of a patient’s culture, religious beliefs, past experiences, and likes or dislikes can help determine what might be good for them.
Nonmaleficence is an ethical principle that requires caregivers to avoid causing patient harm. Physicians today still swear by the code of Hippocrates, pledging to do no harm (Ledlow & Stephens, 2018).
The obligation to be just and fair in the distribution of scarce resources is not an easy pathway to follow when there are so many competing interests in the world. Improving the health and well-being of the people is a moral concern. The careless allocation of scarce resources that are not cost-effective produces fewer benefits that would have been possible through the thoughtful and wise distribution of scarce resources because resources are limited, the allocation of funding must be equitable and just (Pozgar, 2019).
Ledlow, G. R., & Stephens, J. H. (2018). Leadership for Health Professionals: Theory, skills, and applications. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Pozgar, G. D. (2019). Legal and ethical issues for health professionals (5th ed.). Jones and Bartlett.
Wolin, M., 2021. The 4 Principles of Health Care Ethics – Clipboard Health. https://clipboardhealth.com/how-the-4-principles-of-health-care-ethics-improve-patient-care